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Edited by Paweł Czartoryski 

Tables assembled by Małgorzata Golińska-Gierych 
and prepared for publicalion by Jacek Soszyński 

Reproduction technique by Władysław Trojanowski 



			1992 CD Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN Sp, z 0,0, 

Ali rights reserved 

Graphic design: Stefan Nargielło 

Published in Poland 
by Polish Scientific Publishers Ltd Warszawa-Kraków 1992 

ISBN 83-01-10562-3 

Printed in Poland 
Drukarnia Narodowa, Cracow 




			c o N T E N T S 
INTRODUCTION by Pawel Czarroryslei 9 








The fourth and last volume of Nicholas Copernicus' Complere Works contains the 
facsimiles of the original sources which were published in Volume III. This is 
comparable to the relation between the facsimile of the autograph of the Revolurions 
contained in Volume I and its edition in Volume II. 
The in iti al project of the Complere W orks involved three volumes only. The idea of 
reproducing all of Copernicus' minor works in a facsimile edition matured during the 
preparation of Volume III. The decision to issue Volume IV was in a sense a natural 
consequence of Copernicus' rank among the founders of modem science. But it was also 
due to the fact that a unique collection of photographs of manuscripts preserved in 
twenty libraries and archives of eight European countries has been assembled over the 
years at the Centre for Copernican Studies of the Institute for the History of Science, 
Education and Technology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, The publication of such 
a complete set of documents, reflecting more than forty years of Copernicus' creative 
life, seems to be bringing a certain stage of historical research to a close. His personality 
and his writings are noweasy of access, and easily placed within the framework of the 
general culture of his times, This should eliminate, once and for all, errors and 
misunderstandings due to the lack of direct access to the sources. 
Unlike Volume III, which was arranged according to subject matter and chronology, 
in what follows, Copernicus' autograph texts are presented first, folIowed by manuscript 
copies of his writings on money and on astronomy , and by two printed books published 
during his lifetime. 
Plate I opens the volume, showing, greatly enlarged, the seal of Copernicus' signet- 
-ring with the image of Apollo, which he used in his private correspondence. In 
tum, the series of official letters written by Copernicus on behalf of the Vannia 
Chapter is preceded by the seal of that Chapter showing the Madonna and Child 
(Plate XX), 
Plates II-IV present drawings and photographs of watennarks G, H, I, found on 
paper used for documents written by Copernicus. These watennarks follow the 
watermarks C- F found in the manuscript of the Revolurions, which were reproduced 
and described in Volume I. A drawing of the watermark from the Uppsala Norebook 
(Plate XXXIV) featuring an ox head may be found in L. A. Birkenmajer, Mikołaj 
Kopernik, Cracow, 1900, p. 155. 
Watermark G pictures a hand with a rolled sleeve and a clover-Ieaf on a rod above 
the middle finger. This watennark is found on paper used in four letters of the Vannia 
Chapter written by Copernicus in 1520 (Plates XXIII-XXVI), and also in Copemicus' 
Invenrory from the same year (Plate XXXIX). Watennark G resembles closely 
watennark no. 11465, coming from Maestricht, 1516, reproduced in C.M. Briquet, Les 
filigranes, Paris-Geneve, 1907. 
Watennark H features a double cross beneath a crown, It is found on two folios of 
the Guardians accQunts, one of which, f. 6 (Plate XL, 124/125) filled with Copemicus' 
writing, is dated 1531, while the other, f. 8, not reproduced in this volume, is filled with 
Tiedemann Giese's writing and dated 30 April 1532. Watennark H resembles closely 
watennark no, 1805,- known from Kaunas, 1532, and reproduced in E. Laucevicius' 
catalogue Popierius lieruvoje, Vilnius 1967, as well as watennark no. 138, dated 1527, 
known from the State Archives of Gdańsk, document 300,53 (file II) reproduced by 





J. Siniarska-Czaplicka, Filigrany papierni położonych na obszarze Rzeczypospolitej 
Polskiej od początku XVI do połowy XVIII wieku, Wroclaw 1969. According to this last 
author the double cross was the emblem of the Order of the Holy Spirit, which 
possessed, at Czerwony Prądnik near Cracow, land on which the first paper mili in the 
vicinity of this city was erected in 1493, Paper produced by this mili after 1506 had no 
other watermark but the double cross, 
Final1y, watermark I depicts a pot of flowers with the letters RP in its middle part. 
It is found only once, that is, in Copernicus' letter to Duke Albert of Prussia, dated 
21 June 1541 (Plate XIV), None of the watermarks representing a pot, reproduced by 
Briquet nos 12701-12814, contains al1 the features of watermark I. 
Copernicus' manuscripts include his private correspondence (Plates V-XVI), as 
wel1 as letters which he himself wrote on behalf of the Varmia Chapter (Plates 
XXI-XXXI). The later ones are published in the Polish and Latin versions of Volume 
III, but not in its English version. 
Plates XXXII-XXXVI show annotations in books. Here again the tables and notes 
to be found in the Alphonsine Tables, in Regiomontanus' tables (Plate XXXIII), and in 
the Uppsala Notebook (Plate XXXIV), as wel1 as medical prescriptions inscribed in 
Montagnana's Consilia (Plate XXXVI, 88-91) are only published in the Polish and 
Latin versions of Volume III. Its English version, however, along with al1 the other 
language versions includes the recipes for the 'imperial pills' (Plate XXXV) and for the 
'pills for the stornach' (Plate XXXVI, 87, not in Copernicus' hand). 
Copernicus also wrote personal1y most of his administrative documents, name1y: the 
draft proxy concerning his Wroclaw scholastry (Plate XXXVII), the Leases of 
Abandoned Farmsteads (Plate XXXVIII, 93-106), the Inventory of 1520 (Plate 
XXXIX), the Guardians' accounts (Plate XL), and the Bread Tariff(Plate XLIII, 129), 
One page of the Leases, however, was written by Tiedemann Giese (Plate XXXVIII, 
107), and one folio ofthe Bread Tariff by Felix Reich (Plate XLIII, 130). Furthermore, 
two of Copernicus' letters have been preserved in later copies (Plates XVII, XVIII), 
and his approval of a financial transaction is found in a document written by a scribe 
(Plate XLI). 
Copernicus' draft proxy mentioned above is preserved in the Archivio Notarile at 
Padua. The Diocesan Archives at Olsztyn possess three letters of the Varmia Chapter to 
Bishop Maurice Ferber and the draft of the Chapter's letter to Plotowski, al1 four items 
written by Copernicus, as wel1 as the extant folio of his Leases and the complete text of 
his Inventory of 1520. Six personal letters to Bishop Dantiscus, one letter from the 
Varmia Chapter to the same bishop, four letters from the Chapter to Bishop Fabian of 
Lossainen and a letter from Henry Perigh to this last bishop, al1 written by Copernicus, 
are preserved at the Czartoryski Library at Cracow. Two letters to Duke Albert of 
Prussia written by Copernicus in German, the Varmia Chapter's Guardians' accounts 
and the Chapter's letter to King Sigismund I of Poland, al1 coming from the former 
Konigsberg archives, are now preserved at the Geheimes Staatsarchiv at Berlin, while 
one persona l letter of Copernicus to Dantiscus may be found at the Staatsbibliothek in 
the same city. Final1y, the Library of the University at Uppsala possesses Copernicus' 
books with the notes reproduced in the present volume, his Bread T ariff, one of his 
letters to Bishop Ferber, and one to Dantiscus. 
One of Copernicus' lost letters has been preserved in a facsimile published in 
Edinburgh in 1821 (Plate XIX), while a photograph of another one, lost in the interwar 






period, is available at the Olsztyn Diocesan Archives (Plate V). A part of the Leases 
(Plate XXXVIII, 93-104) and Copernicus' letter to Felix Reich (Plate XLII) 
are preserved in photographs taken before 1945, now in Hans Schmauch's collec- 
tion in Munich. These photographs are our most immediate records of the 
Copernicus' writings about money and his minor astronomical works are preserved 
in various handwritten copies. 
His earliest study of money, described as Meditata (private reflections) and dated 15 
August 1517 is known from three copies. One of these copies, from 1522, was lost 
during the second world war at the archives of Gdańsk; it is reproduced here from 
a photograph, now in the Hans Schmauch collection in Munich (Plate XLIV). Two 
other contemporary copies come from the Libri legationum at the Central Archives of 
Historical Records at Warsaw (Plate XLV), and from Górski's Files at the Ossolineum 
Library at Wroclaw (Plate XLVI), Both copies are aImost identical: the former was 
found by Marian Biskup in 1984, while the latter has been known since the nineteenth 
century. A single page of an eighteenth-century copy of the same text, coming from 
Gdańsk, is also reproduced (Plate XLVII), 
The manuscript oC 1522, containing the German version ofthe Meditata prepared in 
1519, and Iabelled Denkschrift in Volume III of the Complete Works is preserved at 
Gdańsk (PIate XLVIII). The Denkschrift was published by Caspar Schutz in Historia 
rerum prussicarum (Plate XLIX, first edition, Zerbst 1592). Toruń archives are in 
possession of a unique copy of a Latin translation-summary of the DenkschriJt, dating 
from the end of the sixteenth century (Plate L). This Latin translation-summary has 
not been included in the English version of Volume III. 
Copernicus' Essayon the Coinage oj Money (1525-1526) has been preserved in three 
contemporary copies. One of these copies was written by Felix Reich (Plate LI), one 
belonged to Friedrich Fischer, chancellor to Duke Albert of Prussia (Plate LII, both 
copies now at Berlin), while the third belonged to Bishop Maurice Ferber (Plate LIII, 
now at Cracow). 
The Commentariolus, being a first draft of Copernicus' planetary system, written 
before 1514, is known from three manuscript copies, namely: Duncan Liddel's copy 
dated 2 November 1585 and preserved at Aberdeen (Plate LIV), a copy which survived 
in Stockholm, bound together with a copy of the second edition of the Revolutions which 
belonged to Johannes Hevelius, a seventeenth-century astronomer from Gdańsk (Plate 
LV), and a copy, made after 1589 for Christian Serensen Longberg (Longomontanus) 
preserved at Vienna (Plate L VI). 
In a letter of 3 J une 1524 to the cartographer and royal secretary Bernard Wapowski, 
his fellow-student at the University of Cracow, Copernicus gave a report on a short 
treatise by a Nuremberg astronomer, Johann Werner oh the Motion oj the Eighth 
Sphere. A passage from this letter, which has come to be known as Copernicus' Letter 
against Werner, was published in Tychonis Brahe Dani de mundi aetherei recentioribus 
phaenomenis, 1588 (Plate L VII). Three manuscript copies of the letter are preserved at 
Oxford (Plates LVIII-LX). They were made by professors Henry Savile in 1578, 
Thomas Smith in the seventeenth century , and Stephen Peter Rigaud at the beginning 
of the nineteenth century. An earlier copy, now at Schweinfurt (Plate LXII), was made 
in 1569 by the German astronomer Johann Praetorius, The copy preserved at Vienna 
(Plate LXI) is dated 30 March 1575, the copy preserved at Berlin (Plate LXIII) was 




probably written after 1571, while that which survived at Uppsala (Plate LXIV) bears 
no date and no indications of its origin. 
The Strasbourg manuscript of the Letter against Werner had been copied in Prague 
in January 1531, and it was destroyed when the Strasbourg municipallibrary burned 
down in 1870 during the Franco-Prussian war. Luckily, the manuscript was copied at 
Strasbourg in June 1839 by Antoni Makowski. Makowski's copy, the fate of which is 
unknown, was in turn transcribed before 1875 by Leonard Niedźwiedzki, who inserted 
a Polish translation between the lines of the Latin text (Plate LXV). A second 
transcription of Makowski's copy, prepared at the Academy of Arts and Sciences in 
Cracow in 1899, was offered to the municipallibrary of Strasbourg to rep lace the old 
manuscript destroyed in 1870 (Plate LXVI). 
The facsimiles of two smalI books printed during Copernicus' lifetime complete the 
volume. First comes his translation of Theophylactus Simocatta's, Ethical, Rustic and 
Love Letters, Cracow, 1509 (Plate LXVII; the booklet was reproduced once before: 
Wroclaw, 1953); next comes the table of sines published as an Appendix in his Sides and 
Angles oj Triangles, Wittenberg, 1542 (Plate LXVIII). This table of sines has never 
been published since its first edition. It is reprinted and explained in the Polish and 
Latin versions of Volume III, but not in its English version. 
AlI the manuscripts reproduced in the present volume were inspected by its editor in 
the various libraries and archives in which they are preserved. Their detailed 
descriptions made on those occasions were of great 
elp in preparing the edition. The 
dimensions of the separate documents are given in the List of Plates to an accuracy of 
5 mm. Documents bigger than the si ze of our volume have been reduced in size, while 
alI remaining materials are reproduced to a l: l scale. 
The facsimile was prepared at the Drukarnia Narodowa (National Press) in Cracow, 
using modern scanner techniques, It is based on black and white photographs, but the 
colours of the final reproduction match the originals as dosely as possible, with the 
exception of red, found in the Uppsala Notebook (plates XXXIII, 59 and XXXIV), 
Throughout, our goal has been to produce plates faithful to the originals, with the least 
sacrifice of their beauty, harmony and legibility . 
The preparation of Volume IV of Nicholas Copernicus' Complete Works has lasted 
many years, and involved the labours and aspirations of many persons. Acknowledge- 
ments are due, first, to those libraries and archives, in many countries, that have made 
their colIections accessible for research, and granted permission to reproduce Coperni- 
can sources in the present volume. In particular Professor Heribert Nobis from Munich 
should be mentioned here with gratitude for providing genuine photographs from Hans 
Schmauch's colIection for reproduction. Next, thanks should be expressed to numerous 
photographers, who prepared prints, which served as the basis of the facsimiles. Their 
names, as welI as the list of the respective libraries and archives, folIow the List of Plates 
in the present volume. 
Acknowledgements are due to staff members of the Centre for Copernican Studies: 
Małgorzata Golińska-Gierych, who took care of the work from its very beginning till 
1986, Jacek Soszyński, who continued and completed her work, and Marek Troszyński, 
who typed the introductory parts of the separate language versions. Particular thanks 
are due to Mrs Ewa Krasińska for reading the English version, and to Professor John D, 
North for its final revision. 


....... .



Also, acknowledgements are due to the members of the staffs of the National Press 
(Drukarnia Narodowa) in Cracow, and of the Polish Scientific Publishers in Warsaw 
and Cracow. Władysław Trojanowski prepared the scanner technology for producing 
the facsimiles, while Barbara Baran worked on retouching the photographs, together 
with Maria Kaniowa from the Polish Scientific Publishers in Cracow, who, moreover, 
edited the volume. Mrs. Maria Bujnowska from the Warsaw branch of the Polish 
Scientific Publjshers and Władysław Negrey, director of its Cracow branch supervised 
the whole work. 
Thus, after twenty years, Volume IV concludes the English version of Nicholas 
Copernicus Complete Works. 

Paweł Czartoryski 




Plate 1.1. Copernicus' signet-ring seal with the image of Apollo considerably enlarged. 
Nicholas Copernicus' letter to Bishop Joannes Dantiscus, Frombork, 11 March 
1539. See Plate XII, 


Plate II. 2-3, Watermark G, drawing and photograph. 
Letter ofthe Varmia Chapter to King Sigismund I ofPoland, Olsztyn, 16 Novem- 
ber 1520, See Plate XXV. 
Plate III. 4-5. Watermark H, drawing and photograph. 
Varmia Chapter's Guardians's accounts. See Plate XL, 124/125, f. 6, dated 
Plate IV. 6-7. Watermark I, drawing 	



Plate XI. 19-20, Letter XII. Nicholas Copernicus to Bishop Joannes Dantiscus. 
Frombork, 3 March 1539. 
Cracow, Czanoryski Library, MS 307, pp. 123-124. 
27 x 19 cm, 
Plate XII. 21-22. Letter XIII. Nicholas Copernicus to Bishop Joannes Dantiscus. 
Frombork, 11 March 1539. 
Cracow, Czanoryski Library, MS 1596, pp, 557-558, 
28.5 x 19.5 cm, 
Plate XIII. 23-24. Letter XIV, Nicholas Copernicus to Duke Albert of Prussia. 
Frombork, 15 June 1541 (in German). 
Berlin, Geheimes Staatsarchiv Preussischer Kulturbesitz, XX. HA StA Konigsberg, HBA, C la, 
Kasten 497, 
30 x 21 cm, 
Plate XIV. 25-26, Letter XV. Nicholas Copernicus to Duke Albert of Prussia, 
Frombork, 21 June 1541 (in German). 
Berlin, Geheimes Staatsarchiv Preussischer Kulturbesitz, XX, HA StA Konigsbcrg, HBA, C la, 
Kasten 497, 
30 x 21 cm, 
Plate XV, 27-28, Letter XVI. Nicholas Copernicus to Bishop Joannes Dantiscus, 
Frombork, 27 June 1541. 
Berlin, Staatsbibliothek, Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Dannstiidter Collection, MS J 1530(1), 
29 x 19,5 cm. 
Plate XVI. 29-30. Letter XVII, Nicholas Copernicus to Bishop Joannes Dantiscus, 
Frombork, 28 September 1541. 
Cracow, Czanoryski, Library, MS 1619, pp, 99-100. 
29 x 19,5 cm, 

Copies of Nichołas Copernicus' lost letters 

Plate XVII. 31. Letter V. Nicholas Copernicus to Bishop Maurice Ferber. Frombork, 
27 July 1531 (18th century copy). 
Cracow, Czanoryski Library, MS 284, p, 169, 
34'5 x 20 cm. 
Plate XVIII. 32. Letter XI. Nicholas Copernicus to Bishop Joannes Dantiscus. 
Frombork, 11 January 1539. Copied in the 17th century by Jan Brożek on 
a flyleaf of his copy of the Revolutions, Amsterdam, 1617. 
Cracow, Jagiellonian Library, St. Dr. 311204-311205, 
22 x 17 cm. 
Plate XIX. 33. Letter VI. Nicholas Copernicus to Joannes Dantiscus, bishop designate 
of Chełmno. Frombork, 11 April 1533. "Notice Respecting Copernicus". 
Edinbourgh Philosophical Journal, 1821, 5, Plate III (facsimile). 
London, British Library, 

Letters of the Varmia Chapter written by Nicholas Copernicus 

Leners comained on Plates XXI-XXXI are not published in the English version of Vol, III oC 
Cornplete Wor.\s, In other versions they are numbered 18-28, 




Plate XX. 34, Seal of the Varmia Chapter with the Madonna and Child, enlarged x 2. 
Letter of the Varmia Chapter to the City Council of Gdańsk. Frombork, 
24 lune 1524. 
Gdańsk. State Archives. 300 D. 42. no, 304, 
Plate XXI. 35-36. Letter 18, Varmia Chapter to Fabian ofLossainen, bishop ofVarmia. 
Olsztyn, 7 March 1520, 
Cracow. Czartoryski Library. MS 1594. pp, 585-586, 
23 )( 19 cm, 
Plate XXII. 37-38. Letter 19. Varmia Chapter to Bishop Fabian of Lossainen. 
Olsztyn, 29 April 1520. 
Cracow. Czartoryski Library. MS 1594. pp, 593-594, 
28 )( 21 cm. 
Plate XXIII. 39-40, Letter 20. Varmia Chapter to Bishop Fabian of Lossainen. 
Olsztyn, 14 lune 1520. 
Cracow. Czartoryski Library. MS 1594. pp, 605-W6, 
21 )( 20'5 cm. 
Plate XXIV. 41-42. Letter 21. Varmia Chapter to Bishop Fabian of Lossainen. 
Olsztyn, 11 September 1520. 
w. Czartoryski Library. MS 1594. pp. 639-640, 
29 )( 21 cm. 
Plate XXV, 43-44. Letter 22. Varmia Chapter to King Sigismund I of Poland. Olsztyn, 
16 November 1520. 
Berlin. Geheimes Staatsarchiv Preussischer Kulturbesitz. XX, HA StA Konigsberg. OBA 24345. 
28,5 )( 21 cm. 
Plate XXVI. 45-46, Letter 23. Henry Perigh, military commander in Olsztyn, to Bishop 
Fabian of Lossainen. Olsztyn, 22 December 1520. 
Cracow. Czartoryski Library. MS 1594. pp. 725-726, 
14 )( 20 cm, 
Plate XXVII. 47-48, Letter 24. Varmia Chapter to Paul Płotowski, provost of Varmia 
(draft). Frombork, after 8 November 1523. 
Olsztyn, Diocesan Archives. Vol. D. 122. f, I r - v 
28 )( 19 cm. 
Plate XXVIII. 49-50. Letter 25. Varmia Chapter to Bishop Maurice Ferber. Frombork, 
23 March 1524. 
Olsztyn. Diocesan Archives. Vol. D, 122. f. 7 r -v 
25 )( 18.5 cm, 
Plate XXIX. 51-52. Letter 26. Varmia Chapter to Bishop Maurice Ferber. Frombork, 
14 May 1524. 
Olsztyn. Diocesan Archives. Vol, D. 122. f. 8r-v 
27.5 )( 18.5 cm. 
Plate XXX. 53-54. Letter 27. Varmia Chapter to Bishop Maurice Ferber. Frombork, 
6 lune 1524. 
Olsztyn. Diocesan Archives. Vol, D, 66. f, 80 r - v 
28 )( 20.5 cm, 
Plate XXXI. 55-56. Letter 28. Varmia Chapter to Bishop loannes Dantiscus. From- 
bork, 17 March 1539. 
Cracow. Czartoryski Library. MS 1595. pp, 997-998. 
28'5 )( 20 cm, 


.... .



Astronomical tables and medical prescriptions written in books owned and used by 
Nicholas Copemicus 

Plate XXXII, 57. Johannes Crastonus, Dictionarium Graecum cum interpretatione Latina, 
Modena, 1499-1500. Flyleaf o: with Copemicus' ownership signature inscribed 
in Greek characters. 
Uppsala, Library of the University, Copernicana 5, 
31.5 x 21 cm, 
This Plate is referred to in Vol. III of Complete Works (p, 5, note 4) as Plate XXXIV. 
Plate XXXIII. Astronomical tables and notes in: Alfonsus X, Tabulae astronomicae, 
Venice, 1492; Johannes Regiomontanus, Tabulae directionum et proJectionum, 
Augsburg, 1490, bound in a single volume together with a handwritten quire oC 
sixteen folios called the Uppsala Notebook. 
Uppsala, Library of the University, Copernicana 4, 
22 x 16.5 cm, 
The astronomieal tables and notes from Ut>psala, Library of the University, Copernicana 4 (Plates 
XXXIII and XXXIV) are not published in the English version of Vol. III of Complete Works, 
58, Front page with Copemicus' ownership signature, f. 1<. 
59. The Sun and the Moon. A table of parallax for 51 0 , f. 113 v , 
60, A table of sines for R = 60, f. 136'. 
61. Note concerning Regiomontanus' table of declinations, f. 142 v . 
62, A table of secants inscribed in Regiomontanus' table of tangents, f. 143'. 
63, Note concerning the table by Regiomontanus, f. 155 V , 
Plate XXXIV. The Uppsala Notebook, 
64. A table of the motion of the Moon, f. 270'. 
65. Page prepared for inscribing a table, f. 270 v . 
66. A table of mean conjunction and opposition of the Sun and the Moon. A table 
of revolutions, f. 271'. 
67, Two tables concerning the motion of the Moon, f. 271 v , 
68. A part of Peurbach's solar apogee table, f. 272'. 
69. A table of equations of the Sun, f. 275 v , 
70. A table of equations of the Sun, continued, f. 276'. 

Tables of the latitudes of the five planets with a canon 
71. Saturn, f. 276 v . 
72. Jupiter, f. 277'. 
73. Mars, f. 277 v . 
74. Venus, f. 278'. 
75, Mercury, f. 278 v . 
76. Tables of deviation and declination for Venus and Mercury, f. 279'. 
77, A table of proportional minutes for the five planets, f. 279 v . 
78. A table of proportional minutes for the reflection of Mercury, f. 280'. 
79-80. A canon conceming the tables of latitudes of Venus and Mercury, 
ff. 280 v -281', 
81. Blank page, f. 281 v . 
82. Apogees of the four planets, f. 284'. 


a II li OTfltA 

. "



83. A note concerning the theory of the solar system, f. 284 v . 
84, A table concerning eclipses, and an auxiliary multiplication rabie, f. 285', 
85, Astronomical notes, f, 285 v . 
Plate XXXV. 86. Recommendation of the imperial piUs, attributed to Arnold of 
Villanova. Matthaeus Silvaticus, Liber pandectarum medicinae, Venice, 1498, 
f. 182 v , 
Uppsala, Library of the University, Copernicana 14. 
30'5 x 21 cm. 
Plate XXXVI. Nicholas Copernicus' prescriptions, 
87. Copernicus' prescription for pills for the stornach, 24 February 1532, written 
by an unknown hand. Mesue, Opus medicinale cum expositione Mondini super 
canones universales, Venice, 1502, end paper of front cover, 
Uppsala, Library of the University, Copernicana 23, 
29'5 x 21.5 cm, 
88-91. Copernicus' pre.scriptions in: Bartholomeus Montagnana, Consilia (etc.), 
Venice, 1514, ff. 345 v , 346', 349' and 406'. 
Uppsala, Library of the University, 42:52 (Obr), 
31 x 22 cm, 
The prescriptions from B. Montagnana's Consi/ia are not published in the English version. 

Copernicus' administrative documents 

Plate XXXVII, 92. Copernicus' proxy concerning his scholastry. Padua, 10 January 
1503. Copernicus' draft with annotations by the notary public. 
Padua, Archivio di Stato, Archivio Notarile, Stefano Venturato's files, vol. I, f. 175'. 
29 x 22 cm. 
Plate XXXVIII. Leases oj Abandoned Farmsteads, reduced (scale 0.8). 
93-104. Leases in the district of Olsztyn for 1516-1519, and the first page of leases 
in the district of Melsac for 1517, written by Copernicus. Originallost; before 
1945: Diocesan Archives Frauenburg, SchbL II, 55. 
Munich, Deutsche Copernicus-Forschungsstelle, photographs from Hans Schmauch's collection, 
105-106. Leases in the district of Melsac for 1517-1519, continued, written by 
Olsztyn, Diocesan Archives, Dok. Kap. II, 55, f, 42'-v. 
32 x 10.5 cm. 
107. Copernicus' leases in the district of Olsztyn for 1521, written by Tiedemann 
Olsztyn, Diocesan Archives, Dok, Kap. L 92, p. l, 
32 x II cm. 
Plate XXXIX. 108-118. Invemory oj the Documents and Legal Papers in the Treasury 
oj the Castle in Olsztyn 1520 A.D., wrinen by Copernicus. 
Olsztyn, Diocesan Archives, Dok, Kap, Y 9, ff. 1-7. 
29'5 x 11 cm, 
Plate XL. 119-125. Accounts ofthe Guardians ofthe Varmia Chap ter, 1531. Document 
II written by Copernicus, reduced (scale 0'8). The bottom edges of pp, 3 v -6' cut 
on photographs by 1-2 cm. 
Berlin, Geheimes Staatsarchiv Preussischer Kulturbesitz, XX. HA StA Konigsberg, Etatsministerium, 
31q, l, ff 3 v -6 v , 
35 x II cm, 
This Plate is referred to in Vol, III of Compiele Works, p. 294, n. 14, as Plate XLII. 




Plate XLI. 126. Copernicus' approval of a tinancial transaction, Olsztyn, 15 March 
1518. Written by a scribe. 
Olsztyn, Diocesan Archives, Z, 2( I), 
16.5 x 24.5 cm, 
This Plate is reCerred to in Vol. III oC Complete Works, p, 254. as Plate XLIII, 
Plate XLII. 127-128. Letter IV. Nicholas Copernicus' autograph letter to Canon Felix 
Reich. Frombork, 28 April 1527 according to E. Rosen, or 19 April 1528 
according to M. Biskup. Original lost; before 1945: State Archives Konigsberg, 
Schrank 5, Fach 22, no. 28. 
Munich. Deutsche Copernicus-Forschungsstelle. photographs Crom Hans Schmauch's collection, 
This Plate is reCerred to in Vol. III oC Complete Works p. 319. as Plate XLV. 
Plate XLIII. Bread Tariff, 1531. 
129. Olsztyn Bread TarifJ according to the prices oj the grains, wheat and rye, f. 62 v 
(p. 2), written by Copernicus, 
Uppsala. Library oC the University. H, 156. 
28 x 19.5 cm, 
130. lnvestigating the computations connected with the ordinary top quality light 
bread, f. 66 (p. 9), written by Felix Reich. 
Uppsala. Library oC the University. H, 156, 
28 x 17.5 cm, 

Copies of Nicholas Copernicus' writings about money 

Capitalleuers in brackets reCer to capitals used in Vol. III oC Complete Works to denote successive versions oC 
Copernicus' writings about money. and separate manuscripts oC his Commentariolus and Letter against Werner, 

Meditata (private reflections), 15 August 1517 (M) 

Plate XLIV. 131-132, Copy made after 5 April 1521, now lost; before 1945: Danzig, 
State Archives, 300, 25, no. 20, 
Munich. Deutsche Copernicus-Forschungsstelle. photographs Crom Hans Schmauch's collection 
Plate XLV. 133-139, Contemporary copy. 
Warsaw. Central Archives oC Historical Records, Libri legationum 5. ff, 170 v _173 v , 
29.5 x 19 cm, 
Plate XLVI. 140-145. Contemporary copy, 
Wrocław. Ossolineum Library. Górski's Files. MS 199. pp. 264-269, 
30,5 x 20.5 cm. 
Plate XLVII. 146. First page of 18th century copy. 
Gdańsk. State Archives. 300 R/D 6. p, 179, 
33,5 x 21 cm. 

Denkschrift, 1519 (D) 
Plate XLVIII, 147-155. Copy dated 1522 with Appendix (A) on fol. 546 r -546 v . 
Gdańsk. State Archives. 300. 29/6. er. 542 v -546 v , 
29.5 x 22 cm, 
Plate XLIX. 156-160. Text printed in: Caspar Schutz, Historia rerum prussicarum, 
Zerbst, 1592, ff. 517-519. 
Cracow. Czartoryski Library. 6 III Cim. 
31.5 x 20.5 cm, 




Plate L. 161-163. Latin translątion-summary (T) of the Denkschrifl. End of the 16 th 
Toruń, State Archives, Kat. II-VII 4, pp, 334-336, 
32.5 x 20 cm, 
Text T is not published in the English version of Complete Wor/ts, 

Essay on lhe Coinage oj Money (E), April 1525 - April 1526, with the German text of the 
proclamation issued from Malbork on 6 November 1418, and a Latin note In libro 
aclorum antiquo. 
This last note is not published in the English version. 

Plate LI. 164-175. Copy written by Felix Reich (ER). Note In libro aclorum antiquo- 
f. IV,. proclamation issued from Malbork - f. 6 v , 
Berlin, Geheimes Staatsarchiv Preussischer Kulturbesitz, XX, HA StA Kónigsberg, HBA, H, Kasten 752, 
ff. I r....(jv, 
32 x 22 cm, 
Plate LII. 176-194, Copy which belonged to Friedrich Fischer, chancellor to Duke 
Albert of Prussia (EF). Proclamation issued from Malbork - ff. 48 r -49 r , note 
In libro aClorum anliquo - ff. 49 v -50 r . 
Berlin, Geheimes Staatsarchiv Preussischer Kulturbesitz, XX, HA StA Kónigsberg, Ostpreussische 
Folianten, no, 12868, ff, 41-50, (ff, 38-47 of new foliation), 
28.5 x 21,5, 
Plate LIII. 195-207. The Lidzbark copy which belonged to Bishop Maurice Ferber 
(EC). Proclamation issued from Malbork - f. 91 H . 
Cracow, Czanoryski Library, MS 259, ff. 85v-91v, 
30 x 20,5 cm. 

Copies of Nicholas Copernicus' minor astronomical writings 

Copernicus' Commentariolus, before 1514 

Plate LIV, 208-217, Duncan Liddel's copy, dated 2 November 1585, written on six 
folios interleaved in his copy of the Revolulions, Basel, 1566 (A), 
Aberdeen, University Library, King's College, 521 Cop, 2
, ff. H,H, 85bis r -y, l00bis r , 148bis r - v , 
160bis v , 168ter r - v , 
30 x 20 cm, 
Plate LV. 218-233, Copy sewn in the binding of Johannes Hevelius' copy of the 
Revolulions, Basel, 1566 (S), 
Stockholm, Library of the Royal Academy of Sciences, pp, 1-16 (no csll number). 
29 x 19-5 cm. 
Plate L VI. 234-252. Christian S0rensen Longberg's (Longomontanus') copy made after 
1589 (V). 
Vienna, Osterreichische Nationalbibliothek, Handschriften- und Inkunabelsammlung, Cod, 10530, 
ff, 34-43, 
22 x 16 cm. 

Copernicus' Leller againsl Werner (Lener III, Nicholas Copernicus to Bernard Wapowski, 
Frombork, 3 June 1524) 
Plate LVII. 253-254. Excerpt, printed in: Tychonis Brahe Dani de mundi aelherei 
recenlioribus phaenomenis, Uraniburgi, 1588, pp, 362-363. 





Warsaw, National Library, XVI QU 5020 adl. 
23 )( 17 cm, 
Plate LVIII. 255-264. Henry Savile's copy, 1578 (Ox). 
Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS Savile 47, ff. 28-32 v . 
22 )( 16 cm (f. 28), 18.5 )( 14,5 cm (f. 29-31), 19.5 )( 14.') cm (f. 32), 
Plate LIX. 265-266. Thomas Smith's cppy, 17th century. 
Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS Smith 93, ff. 173 and 180 v , 
21 )( 15 cm. 
Plate LX, 267-268, Stephen Rigaud's copy, dated November 1823. 
Oxford, BodleialI Library, MS Rigaud 43, ff 59 and 73, 
22.5 )( 14 cm, 
Plate LXI. 269-286. Copy dated 30 March 1575 (V). 
Vienna, Osterreichische Nationalbibliothek, Handschriften- und Inkunabelsammlung, Cod. 973726 
ff. l-9 v . 
20 )( 16 cm. 
Plate LXII. 287-296. Johann Praetorius' copy, 1569 (Sch). 
Schweinfurt, City Archives, MS I Ha 14, ff, 9-13 v . 
21 )( 17 cm, 
Plate LXIII. 297-301. Copy made after 1571 (H). 
Berlin, Staatsbibliothek, Preussischer Kulturbesiu, Cod, Lat, Fol. 83, ff, 8-10. 
29.5 )( 20 cm. 
Plate LXIV. 302-307. Copy written on the front (303/304) and rear (305/306) flyleaves 
and on the rear end paper (307) of the binding of the volume containing Coper- 
nicus' RevQlutions, Hasel, 1566, and Regiomontanus' Epitome, Nuremberg, 1550; 
302 - front end paper. 
Uppsala, Astronomkal Observatory, Hjorther ColIection, H, ItI. 34. 
30 )( 21 cm. 
Plate LXV. 308. Copy of the Strasbourg manuscript which was written in Prague in 
January 1531, and destroyed when the Strasbourg library was burned down in 
1870 during the Franco-Prussian War. This copy was made by Leonard Nie- 
dźwiedzki before 1875, from an earlier copy prepared by Antoni Makowski 
at Strasbourg in June 1839 (Mk). Polish translation inserted between the lines 
of the Latin text, 
Cracow, Jagiel10nian Library, MS 482/73, first page, 
20.5 )( 13,5 cm. 
Plate LXVI. 309-321. Copy of Antoni Makowski's copy (Mk) of the Strasbourg 
manuscript. This copy was made in 1899 at the Academy of Arts and Sciences in 
Cracow and offered to the Strasbourg Municipal Library . 
Strasbourg, Municipal Library, MS 1045, ff, 2-8, 

Works printed in Nicholas Copernicus' lifetime 

Plate LXVII. Theophilacti scolastici Simocati epistole morales, rurales et amatorie inter- 
pretatione Latina, Cracouie, 1509. 
Cracow, Jagiel10nian Library, Cim, 4092. 
20 )( 14.5 cm. 
322. Front page. 
323-326. Laurentius Corvinus' Poem, 
327. Letter of Nicholas Copernicus to Lucas, Hishop of Varmia. 





328-361. TheophyIactus Simocatta, the Moralist, Elhical, RUSlic, and Love Lellers 
in Lalin Translalion. 
PIate LXVIII. De laleribus el angulis ,riangulorum (m) libel/us (,..) scriplus a clarissimo 
el dOclissimo uiro D. Nicolao Copernico Toronensi, Vittembergae, 1542. 
Cracow, Jagiellonian Library, Cim 5443, 
21 x 16 cm, 
362. Front page. 
363, Epigram ascribed to Joannes Dantiscus or to George Joachim Rheticus. 
364-399. Appendix containing a tabIe of sines: Addi,US eSl canon semlSSlum 
sublensarum reclarum linea rum in circulo, 
This work is not published in the English version or Vol. III or Complere Works, 




Acknowledgements are due to the following Libraries and Archives for granting 
permission to reproduce documents from their collections in the present volume: 
Aberdeen, University Library, King's College - LIV. 
Berlin, Geheimes Staatsarchiv Preussischer Kulturbesitz - II-IV, XIII, XIV, XXV, 
Berlin, Staatsbibliothek - XV, LXIII. 
Cracow, Czartoryski Library (Biblioteka Czartoryskich) I, VII, VIII, X-XII, XVI, 
Cracow, Jagiellonian Library (Uniwersytet Jagielloński, Biblioteka Jagiellońska) - 
Gdańsk, State Archives (Archiwum Państwowe) - XX, XL VII, XLVIII. 
London, British Library - XIX. 
Munich, Deutsche Copernicus-Forschungsstelle - XXXVIII, 93-104, XLII, XLIV. 
Olsztyn, Diocesan Archives (Archiwum Diecezji Warmińskiej) - V, XXVII-XXX, 
XXXVIII, 105-107, XXXIX, XLI. 
Oxford, Bodleian Library - LVIII-LX. 
Padua, Archivio di Stato, Archivio Notarile - XXXVII. 
Schweinfurt, City Archives (Stadtarchiv) - LXII. 
Stockholm, Library of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Centre for History of 
Science - LV. 
Strasbourg, Municipal Library (Bibliotheque Municipale) - LXVI. 
Toruń, State Archives ( Archiwum Państwowe) - L. 
Uppsala, Astronomical Observatory (Astronomska Observatoriet) - LXIV. 
Uppsala, Library of the University (Universitetsbiblioteket) - VI, IX, XXXII- 
Vienna, Austrian National Library (Osterreichische Nationalbibliothek) - L VI, LXI. 
Warsaw, Central Archives of Historical Records (Archiwum Główne Akt Dawnych) - 
Warsaw, National Library (Biblioteka Narodowa) - LVII. 
Wroclaw, Ossolineum Library (Biblioteka Zakładu Narodowego im, Ossolińskich) - 


Libraries, which supplied photographs ready for reproduction: 
Berlin, Geheimes Staatsarchiv Preussischer Kulturbesitz - III, IV. 
Berlin, Staatsbibliothek - XV. 
Oxford, Bodleian Library - LVIII, LX. 
Strasbourg, Municipal Library - LXVI. 
Uppsala, Library of the University - XXXVI, 88-91. 
Vienna, Austrian National Library - LVI. 





Warsaw, Central Archives oC Historical Records - XLV. 
Warsaw, National Library - LVII. 

Photographers who took photographs directly erom manuscripts: 

Janina Gardzielewska and Janusz Korpal, Toruń - XXXII-XXXVI, 87, XLVIII, 
Owen Gingerich, Cambridge, Mass, - XXXVII. 
Ryszard Kubiczek, Cracow - VII, VIII, X-XII, XVI, XVII, XXI-XXIV, XXVI, 
Alojzy Kuraczyk, Olsztyn - V, XXVII-XXX, XXXVIII, 105-107, XXXIX, XLI. 
Stanisław Łopatka, Cracow - I, XXXI. 
Marian Murman, Gdańsk - XX, XL VI I. 
Krystyna Porębska, Toruń - L- 
Jan Sajdera, Cracow - XVIII, LXV, LXVII, LXVIII. 

Photographers who made prints Crom films supplied by libraries and archives: 

Jerzy Langda, Art Institute, Polish Academy oC Sciences, Warsaw - II, LIX, LXII. 
Krzysztof Majchert, Warsaw - XIX, XXV, XLVI, LXI. 
Zbigniew Żukowski, Warsaw - VI, IX, XIII, XIV, XVIII, XXXVIII, 93-104, 







VoI. I. The Manuscript oj Nicholas Copernicus' "On the Revolutions". Facsimile. 
Edited by Paweł Czartoryski. Introduction by Jerzy Zathey, trans1ated by Zygmunt 
Nierada and Erna Hilfstein. Supervised by Edward Rosen. Reproduction technique by 
Jan Dorociński. London-Warsaw-Cracow, 1972. 
VoI. II. Nicholas Copernicus, On the Revolurions. Edited by Jerzy Dobrzycki. 
Translation and commentary by Edward Rosen. London-Warsaw-Cracow, 1978; 
Ba1timore, 1978. 
VoI. III. Nicholas Copernicus, Minor Works. Edited by Paweł Czartoryski. 
Translation and commentary by Edward Rosen with the assistance of Erna Hilfstein. 
London-Warsaw-Cracow, 1985. 
Vol. IV. The Manuscripts oj Nicholas Copernicus' Minor Works. Facsimiles. Edited by 
Paweł Czartoryski. Tab1es assemb1ed by Małgorzata Golińska-Gierych and prepared for 
publication by Jacek Soszyński. Reproduction technique by Władysław Trojanowski. 
Warsaw - Cracow, 1992. 


Tom l. Rękopis dzieła Mikołaja Kopernika "O obrotach". Facsimile. Redaktor tomu 
Paweł Czartoryski. W stęp Jerzy Zathey. Technika facsimile Jan Dorociński. Warsza- 
wa-Kraków' 1972. 
Tom II. Mikołaj Kopernik, O obrotach. Redaktor tomu Jerzy Dobrzycki. Przekład: 
Mieczysław Brożek (ks. I), Stefan Oświecimski (ks. II-VI). Komentarz: Aleksander 
Birkenmajer (ks. I, rozdz. 1-11), Jerzy Dobrzycki (ks. I, rozdz. 12 - ks. VI). 
Warszawa-Kraków, 1976. 
Tom III. Mikołaj Kopernik, Pisma pomniejsze. Redaktor tomu Paweł Czartoryski. 
l. Astronomia, trygonometria, medycyna: Jerzy Dobrzycki, Jerzy Drewnowski, Małgo- 
rzata Golińska-Gierych, Grażyna Rosińska. II. Przekład listów obyczajowych, sielskich 
i miłosnych Teofilakta Symokaty: Paweł Czartoryski, Anna Słomczyńska. 
II. Pisma 
monetarne: Marian Biskup, Paweł Czartoryski. IV. Dokumenty działalności administra- 
cyjno-gospodarczej i archiwalnej: Marian Biskup, Paweł Czartoryski, Jerzy Drewnows- 
ki, Jan Obłąk, Marek Troszyński. V. Listy: Jerzy Drewnowski. Warszawa-Kraków 
(in course of issue). 
Tom IV. Rękopisy pism pomniejszych Mikołaja Kopernika. Facsimile źródeł. Redaktor 
tomu Paweł Czartoryski. Tablice zebrała Małgorzata Golińska-Gierych, a do druku 
przygotował Jacek Soszyński. Technikę facsimile opracował Władysław Trojanowski. 
Warszawa-Kraków, 1992. 




VoI. I. Nicolai Copernici "De revolutionibus". Codicis propria auctoris manu scripti 
imago phototypa. Vo1uminis edendi tutelam gessit Pau1us Czartoryski. Pro1egomenis 
instruxit Georgius Zathey. Praefationem et prolegomena in Iinguam Latinam verterunt 
lulius Domański (qui et u1timam versioni admovit Iimam), Georgius Drewnowski, 
Andreas Kempfi, Gabriela Pianko, Georgius Wojtczak. Imaginis phototypae conficien- 
dae curam gessit loannes Dorociński. Varsaviae - Cracoviae 1973. 
Vol. II. Nicolai Copemici De revolutionibus libri sex. Edidit Ricardus Gansiniec. 
Opus postumum retractavit lulius Domański, Georgio Dobrzycki adiuvante. Commen- 
tariis instruxerunt: A1exander Birkenmajer (lib. 1., cap. 1-11), Georgius Dobrzycki. 
Commentarios in linguam Latinam verterunt: Andreas Kempfi (Iib. I, cap. 1-11), 
Georgius Wojtczak (lib. l. cap. 12-14, Iib. II), Georgius Danie1ewicz (Iib. III-VI ). 
Varsaviae-Cracoviae 1975. 
VoI. III. Nicolai Copemici Scripta minora (in preparation). 
VoI. IV. Nicolai Copemici Scripta minora. Fontium imagines lucis ope depictae. 
Vo1uminis edendi tutelam gessit Pau1us Czartoryski. Textus in linguam Latinam vertit 
lulius Domański. Tabulas collegit Margarita Golińska-Gierych easque ad impressio- 
nem paravit Hiacinthus Soszyński. Tabularum conficiendarum curam gessit Ladis1aus 
Trojanowski. Varsaviae-Cracoviae 1992. 

Ba-KpaKOB, 1973.




TOM II. HHKOJlaH KOnepHHK. O epaUleHRX. nepeBOD. H KOMeHTapHH ł-1BaH HHKOJlae- 
BH'f BeCeJlOBCKHH. nepepa60TaJl H D.OnOJlHHJI CTecJ>aH OcbBeIlHMCKH. PeD.aKTOp TOMa 
AHHa CJlOM'fblHbCKa. BapwaBa-KpaKoB. 1986. 
TOM IV. PYKonucu He60AbUluX npou36e()eHuu HUKOllaR KonepHuKa. (/JaKcuMuAe 
UCmO'lHUKoe. PeD.aKTOp TOMa naBeJl 4apTopblCKH. Ta6J1Hllbl c06paJla MaJlrmKaTa 
Jle pa3pa60TaJl BJlaD.blCJlaB TpOJlHOBCKH. nepeBOD. BCTynHTeJlbHOH 'faCTH 30cJ>HJI 
OpJIOB-CTIIIH)I(eBCKa. BaplIIaBa - KpaKoB. 1992. 

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